[閒聊] 蒙古對紅軍的戰爭貢獻回顧

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※ [本文轉錄自 Warfare 看板 #1XZyS2pG ] 作者: GETpoint (擲雷爆卦) 看板: Warfare 標題: [閒聊] 蒙古對紅軍的戰爭貢獻回顧 時間: Sat Nov 13 22:09:00 2021 以下來自俄國媒體 (機器翻譯) https://www.rbth.com/history/334292-how-did-mongolia-contribute-ussr How did Mongolia contribute to the Soviet victory over Nazi Germany? HISTORYOCT 13 2021BORIS EGOROV Russia Beyond (Photo: Legion Media) 蒙古對蘇聯戰勝納粹德國有何貢獻? 歷史2021 年 10 月 13 日鮑里斯·葉戈羅夫 超越俄羅斯(照片:Legion Media) One in five horses in the Red Army came from Mongolia and one in five overcoats used by Soviet soldiers were made of Mongolian wool. 紅軍中有五分之一的馬匹來自蒙古,蘇聯士兵使用的大衣有五分之一是用蒙古羊毛製成的 。 Mongolia was one of the staunchest allies of the Soviet Union in the first half of the 20th century. The two countries jointly opposed the Japanese invasion of the People’s Republic in 1939. When, on June 22, 1941, the USSR was invaded by German troops, the Mongols didn't stand idly by. 蒙古是20世紀上半葉蘇聯最堅定的盟友之一。1939年兩國共同反對日本侵略蒙古人民共和 國。1941年6月22日,蘇聯被德軍入侵,蒙古人沒有袖手旁觀。 The Battles of Khalkhin Gol in 1939. Sovfoto/Getty Images The war in Europe, unfolding so far away from Mongolia, suddenly became its war. And, in some respects, the assistance that this sparsely populated and poor country rendered to the USSR was on a par with the aid provided by the United States under the Lend-Lease program. 遠離蒙古的歐洲戰爭突然變成了它的戰爭。甚至在某些方面,這個人口稀少和貧窮的國 家向蘇聯提供的援助與美國在租借計劃下提供的援助相當。 ‘Gift from the Mongolian people' The Mongolian leadership knew that it was not in a position to send its troops to the West: Japan still posed a tangible threat and the country was not able to form a significant contingent of expeditionary forces anyway. That is why the republic intended to focus its efforts on providing all possible economic assistance to its northern neighbor. 蒙古人民的禮物 蒙古領導層知道自己無法向西方派遣軍隊:日本仍然構成了嚴峻的威脅,而且該國無論如 何都無法組建一支重要的遠征部隊。這就是為什麼蒙古打算集中精力為其北部鄰國提供 一切可能的經濟援助。 Public Domain Under the slogan: “There should not be a single person in the country who has not made a personal contribution to the Red Army aid fund”, Mongolia launched a campaign to collect money and gifts for Red Army soldiers. 在“國家不應該有一個人沒有為紅軍援助基金做出個人貢獻”的口號下,蒙古發起了一項 為紅軍士兵募捐的活動。 Already in October, the first train loaded with sheepskin coats, fur vests, warm mittens, felt boots, sweaters and belts donated by Mongolian citizens left for the Soviet Union. The next echelon, which was dispatched in February 1942, also contained food products: meat, sausages, butter and confectionery. Trains with aid were dispatched to the USSR till early 1945. 早在10月,滿載蒙古公民捐贈的羊皮大衣、毛皮背心、保暖手套、氈靴、毛衣和皮帶的第 一列火車啟程前往蘇聯。下一個梯隊於 1942 年 2 月派遣,也包含食品:肉類、香腸、 黃油和糖果。直到 1945 年初,後勤用的專列火車才被開往蘇聯。 Engaelyn Badam. Archive photo One of the most generous donors was nomadic cattle breeder Engaelyn Badam. On behalf of her family, she donated in aid 16 camels, 93 horses, 1,600 sheep, as well as a sum of 10,000 tugriks, enough to buy 12,500 more sheep. 最慷慨的捐助者之一是游牧養牛人恩蓋林·巴達姆。她代表家人捐贈了16頭駱駝、93匹馬 、1600隻羊,還有1萬圖格里克(蒙古貨幣),足以再買12500隻羊。 Strategic materials In addition to donations, Mongolia carried out large deliveries of meat, wool, sheepskin and horses to the USSR on a regular basis at nominal prices. In return, Moscow supplied Mongolia with industrial and food products that the Asian country needed and offset Mongolian debts to the Soviet Union. 戰略物資 除了捐贈外,蒙古還定期以低於市價的價格向蘇聯大量運送肉類、羊毛、羊皮和馬匹。 作為回報,莫斯科向蒙古提供了亞洲國家需要的工業和食品,並抵消了蒙古對蘇聯的 債務。 Public Domain Throughout the war, Mongolia provided its northern ally with some 500,000 tons of meat (to compare, the USA supplied the USSR with 665,000 tons of canned meat) and 64,000 tons of wool (the USA sent 54,000 tons). One in five overcoats used by Red Army soldiers were made of Mongolian wool. 在整個戰爭期間,蒙古為其北方盟友提供了約 50 萬噸肉類(相比之下,美國向蘇聯提供 了 66.5 萬噸罐頭肉)和 6.4 萬噸羊毛(美國提供了 5.4 萬噸)。紅軍士兵使用的大衣 有五分之一是用蒙古羊毛製成的。 In effect, the Mongolian People’s Republic was the sole supplier of sheepskin for the USSR. The material was used to make winter coats for Red Army commanders. 實際上,蒙古人民共和國是蘇聯羊皮的唯一供應商。這種材料被用來製作紅軍指揮官的冬 衣。 Public Domain Another crucial area in which Mongolian aid to the USSR was key were horses. In the initial period of the war alone, the Soviet Union lost almost half of its livestock: by September 1942, out of 17.5 million horses, only nine million remained. 蒙古援助蘇聯的另一個關鍵領域是馬匹。僅在戰爭初期,蘇聯就損失了幾乎一半的牲畜: 到 1942 年 9 月,在 1750 萬匹馬中,只剩下 900 萬匹。 Throughout the war, the Mongolian state bought almost 485,000 horses from its cattle breeders to be supplied to the Soviet Union, with a further 32,000 horses donated by herdsmen. 在整個戰爭期間,蒙古國從畜牧場購買了近 485,000 匹馬供應給蘇聯,另外還有 32,000 匹馬由牧民捐贈。 The low-maintenance and hardy animals proved very good at adapting to the harsh conditions of the Eastern Front and were of vital help to the Soviet troops in transporting goods and pieces of artillery until the shortage of trucks was resolved. One in five horses used on the Soviet front came from Mongolia. 事實證明,這些維護成本低且耐寒的動物非常擅長適應戰線的惡劣條件,並且在解決卡車 短缺問題之前為蘇聯軍隊運輸貨物和大砲提供了至關重要的幫助。蘇聯前線使用的馬有五 分之一來自蒙古。 Public Domain “The horses had excellent marching qualities,” Soviet general Issa Pliev recalled. “The short Mongolian horse has a strong build and short strong legs with small strong hooves. It is capable of covering a distance of 100 kilometers in a day for several days in a row... Thus, the hardy and low-maintenance Mongol horse reached Berlin together with Soviet tanks.” “這些馬匹具有出色的行進品質,”蘇聯將軍 Issa Pliev回憶道。“蒙古矮馬體格健壯 ,腿短而結實,蹄子小而有力。它能夠連續幾天在一天內行駛100公里的距離……因此, 這匹耐寒且維護成本低的蒙古馬與蘇聯坦克一起到達了柏林。” Tanks, aircraft and volunteers On January 16, 1942, the leadership of the Mongolian People’s Republic decided to start collecting funds to manufacture a tank column to donate to the Red Army. A year later, a Mongolian delegation led by the country’s leader, Marshal Khorloogiin Choibalsan, presented the Soviet 112th Tank Brigade with 32 T-34 tanks and 21 T-70 light tanks made with the collected money. 坦克、飛機和志願者 1942年1月16日,蒙古人民共和國領導層決定開始集資製造一輛坦克縱隊,捐贈給紅軍。 一年後,由蒙古國領導人霍爾洛·喬巴山元帥率領的蒙古代表團向蘇聯第112坦克旅贈送 了32輛T-34坦克和21輛T-70輕型坦克。 The 112th Brigade, which was dubbed Revolutionary Mongolia, took part in the Battle of Kursk, where it successfully proved itself in battles against one of the most famous formations of the Wehrmacht, the Großdeutschland (Great Germany) Division. For their courage and heroism, the brigade’s servicemen were awarded both Soviet and Mongolian medals. 第 112 旅被稱為蒙古革命軍,參加了庫斯克會戰,並在與德國國防軍最著名的編隊之一 大德意志(大德意志)師的戰鬥中成功證明了自己。由於他們的勇氣和英雄主義,該旅的 軍人被授予蘇聯和蒙古獎章。 Soldiers of the Red Army receive the Revolutionary Mongolia tank column. TASS By the summer of 1943, with funds donated by the people of Mongolia, the 2nd Fighter Squadron, known as the Mongolian Arat Squadron, was set up. On September 25, it was handed over to the 2nd Guards Regiment of the 322nd Fighter Aviation Division. 1943年夏,在蒙古人民的捐助下,組建了第2戰鬥機中隊,即蒙古阿拉特中隊。9月25日, 移交給第322戰鬥機航空師第2近衛團。 “Finally, the long-awaited hour has come. One after another, 12 brand new La-5 combat aircraft emerged from behind the forest, each carrying a bright red inscription Mongolian Arat on its fuselage. Having circled over the airfield, the aircraft taxied to a specially designated area. Shouts [of] ‘ Hurray, Mongol Arat!’, ‘Hurray, Mongolian people!’ drowned out the roar of the engines,” wrote Lieutenant General Alexander Semyonov recalling that day. (電子化的俄方文件) http://militera.lib.ru/h/semenov2/02.html “終於,期待已久的時刻到了。12架全新的La-5戰機從林後陸續出現,每架都在機身上刻 有鮮紅的蒙古阿拉特字樣。在機場上空盤旋後,飛機滑行到一個特別指定的區域。'萬歲 ,蒙古阿拉特!','萬歲,蒙古人!淹沒了引擎的轟鳴聲,”亞歷山大·謝苗諾夫中將回 憶那天時寫道。 Fighters of the Mongolian Arat Squadron. Public Domain The squadron took part in such important battles as Operation Bagration, as well as in the Berlin and Prague operations. Its personnel (as well as the personnel of the Revolutionary Mongolia Tank Brigade) were partially maintained by the Mongolian side, which never failed to commemorate the servicemen’s bravery with awards. 該中隊參加了諸如巴格拉基昂行動以及柏林和布拉格行動等重要戰役。其人員(以及革命 蒙古坦克旅的人員)部分由蒙方保留,蒙方通過嘉獎來紀念軍人的英勇。 In addition, from 500 to several thousand Mongol volunteers took part in fighting against the Germans on the Eastern Front. Red Army commanders valued them for their excellent skills as hunters and riders, so Mongolian volunteers mainly served in cavalry units and were successfully used as scouts and snipers. 此外,還有 500 到數千名蒙古志願者參加了在東線與德國人的戰鬥。紅軍指揮官看重他 們作為獵人和騎手的出色技能,因此蒙古志願者主要在騎兵部隊服役,並成功地用作偵察 員和狙擊手。 If using any of Russia Beyond's content, partly or in full, always provide an active hyperlink to the original material. 如果部分或全部使用俄羅斯超越的任何內容,請始終提供指向原始材料的有效超鏈接。 -- 七魄興輪無上伊甸瑜珈雖然是以看來較為平和的方式以蟬蛻和生乳取代血肉等腥穢之物 作為密義源起供養;然而聚歛於上的是冥界的深冤與大樂奔瀉的淨慈,行者於閉關修持 之時若生起退失動搖之心,則神識旋即離散且肉身消殞;即便如此還是願意受灌頂嗎? https://i.imgur.com/cEVD0kE ---妖道七祖《攝一切魔根本瑜珈論/誓命問品第一》--- 文章代碼(AID): #1K0Lp7VP (CFantasy) [ptt.cc] Re: [新聞] 湖南偏鄉驚曝百餘...... https://i.imgur.com/eRQKYMF 文章網址: https://tinyurl.com/56ervywe -- ※ 發信站: 批踢踢實業坊(ptt.cc), 來自: 111.248.112.65 (臺灣) ※ 文章網址: https://www.ptt.cc/bbs/Warfare/M.1636812546.A.CD0.html
HAHAcomet: 原來1939中華人民共和國就成立了 11/13 22:25
GETpoint: 俄國媒體啊 另一個名字是歷史禁詞 跟著原文機翻就長這樣 11/13 22:28
Uber: 同一樓www 11/13 22:47
hedgehogs: 推 11/14 00:22
mattc123456c: 老實寫China很難? 11/14 00:23
ROMEL: 那個"People's Republic"是指蒙古人民共和國吧? 11/14 00:25
mattc123456c: 說完蒙古、蘇聯,接下來緊接的兩國又加上反對日本 11/14 01:28
mattc123456c: 入侵"People's Republic" 11/14 01:28
mattc123456c: 是不是忘了1939年中共還沒篡奪中國 11/14 01:29
mattc123456c: 目前部分英文文章會直接用該詞來代稱中國 11/14 01:30
ooostr: 蘇聯:好兄弟,我還需要機車頭卡車載具輪胎皮勳章繡帶spam 11/14 01:41
donkilu: 蒙古馬的好 紅軍都知道 11/14 03:04
hsinhanchu: 就是被蘇聯抓差拉伕徵用戰爭物資嘛,放在任何一個加盟 11/14 08:54
hsinhanchu: 共和國都成立。 11/14 08:54
proletariat: 1939年是指諾門罕啦 才不是防衛中華人民共和國 11/14 09:34
proletariat: 文章中1939年的people’s republic 是蒙古人民共和 11/14 09:36
proletariat: 國 11/14 09:36
sandiegopadr: 真的渣翻 看上下文人民共和國就指蒙古 可惜不能噓 11/14 09:55
money501st: 奶油.........黃油......... 11/14 11:54
money501st: 上下文來看People’s Republic 11/14 11:54
money501st: 在這裡是指蒙古沒錯 11/14 11:55
mattc123456c: 我忘了諾門罕 11/14 12:22
mattc123456c: 機翻後還是要人工校正 11/14 12:22
耶嘿~我來偷改了~耶嘿~ https://i.imgur.com/YsXKijs ※ 編輯: GETpoint (111.248.112.65 臺灣), 11/14/2021 12:27:10
cksxxb: 怪關東軍太廢,連騷擾蒙古物資都辦不到 11/14 13:19
IAMCSH: 蒙古是蘇聯最早的衛星國,這些根本是被逼得。 11/15 16:17
iamoldtwo: ☠ 11/15 19:11
ja23072008: 一是諾門罕被打慘,重心往其他方向發展。二是1941日 11/15 21:04
ja23072008: 蘇中立條約簽訂後,該年各種詭譎的國際外交和軍事行 11/15 21:04
ja23072008: 動變化,不要說干擾蒙古,日本連美國援蘇船隊走海參 11/15 21:04
ja23072008: 威的路線也沒有阻擋。 11/15 21:04
Kazuma0332: 南蒙古的精銳騎兵也受了拆那國蠱惑,在佔領圖博戰役 11/16 09:20
Kazuma0332: 中貢獻良多,但拆那以回報大躍進和大饑荒回報南蒙古 11/16 09:20
Kazuma0332: …這是後話了 11/16 09:20
※ 發信站: 批踢踢實業坊(ptt.cc) ※ 轉錄者: Davidking (111.235.212.225 臺灣), 11/16/2021 16:22:37 ※ 編輯: Davidking (111.235.212.225 臺灣), 11/16/2021 16:23:02

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